ENGLISH CLASS — “GRAMMAR IN GENERAL”

November 10th 2016

  1. Conditional Sentence

Conditional Sentence is a sentence to express supposition on something that may or may not be happend as one supected. Conditional Sentence is in a form of compund sentence, that is sentence constist of main clause and subordinate clause

  • Main Clause : Sentence that have its own meaning even without other part of clause from compound sentence
  • Subordinate : Sentence that if we separate it from other part of clause from compund sentence doesn’t have its own meaning,

There are three type of conditional sentence

  • Type 1 : Type of supposition of the future event that still have chance to happen.
  • Type 2 : Type of supposition in the form of make-believe of event that happen today if the cause was different
  • Typer 3 : Type of supposition that is imposible to happend because the event already happend in the past

Formula

  • Type 1

If + subject + V1, Subject + will + Vinfinitive

Or

If + subect + be + adjective/noun, Subject + will be + adjective/noun

Contoh :

  • If I study hard, I will pass the final examination

Fact : I still have the chance to pass the final examination because it will happen held in the future

  • Rinda will enter state university If she get high score in the national examination

Fact : Rinda still has chance to enter state university because she doesn’t get the score yet

  • If John is old enough, He will be able to drive my own car

Fact : John still has chance to be able to drive

  • Type 2

If + subject + V2, Subject + would + Vlnfinitive  

Or

 If + subject + were + adjective/noun, Subject + would be + adjective/noun

Contoh :

  • If I were you, I would marry her

Fact : I am not you

  • We would study abroad if we passed the final test

Fact : We don’t pass the final test

  • If I were working in England, I would be living together with my family

Fact : I am not working in England

  • Type 3

If + subject + had + V3/past perfects + subject + would have + V3/past perfect

Or

If + subject + had been + adjective/noun + subject + would have been + adjective/noun

Contoh :

  • If I had studied English well, I would have got good score in TOEIC

Fact : I did not study. Therefore, I had bad score in TOEIC

  • If I had been working in England last year. I would have been living together with my family.

Fact : I was not working in England. I was not living together with my family

  • If it has not been raining, I would have gone to the music concert

Fact : It was raining, so I did not go to the music concert

  1. Modal

Definition :

A modal (also known as a modal auxiliary) expresses necessity, uncertainty, ability, or permission.

Formula :

S + Modals + V bare infinitive + (O)

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Example :

  • You Can Watch TV after doing your homework
  • You may catch a cold, if you don’t use your jacket while driving motorcycle
  • You Should be embarrassed for cheating on the test
  • I must go home before 6 O’cloack
  • I will play smoke on the water during the concert
  1. Gerund

Definition :   Gerund is a verb used but the function become object or subject.

Formula :

  • As Subject

S (Gerund (Verb + Ing)) + V + O/Adjective

Example :

  • Swimming is my hobby
  • Loving you is the best thing that happend in my life
  • Drivning a car is not hard to learn
  • As Object

Formula 1  S + V + Prepotition + O (Gerund ( Verb + Ing)

Prepotition :  about, in, for, of, without, from, by

Example :

  • She is good at speaking English
  • My brother is interested in dating the new girl at school
  • I am quite fond of learning France

Formula 2  S + Verb + O (Gerund ( Verb + Ing)

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Example :

  • If you had finishedeating snacks, clean the trashes
  • I go shopping with my friends.
  • I enjoy playing
  • Gerund as Compund Noun

Used as an explanation to certain tool :

Swiming Pool, Swimming Suit, Bathing Suit, Shopping Centre, Drawing Book, Sewing Machine, Washing Machine, Writing Paper, Dinning Table, Shopping Bag, Racing Car, Waiting Room, Dinning Room, Living Room, Surfing Board, ect.

  • Gerund as a Notice or Prohibition

Used on simple and short remainder on prohibiton that certain places apply certain rule

No smoking, no spitting, no parking, No littering, No Fishing,  warning, etc.

Exercsise

  • Conditional Sentence
  1. If I finish the assignment before Saturday, I………………..(submit) it to my lecturer.
  2. If your sister………………….(buy) that chocolate for you, will you be happy?
  3. My lecturer will not accept my work if I…………….(submit) it in late
  4. She would have understood her English teacher if she………………(speak) slowly.
  5. Roni would win the competition if he…………………(practice) more
  6. We wouldn’t know that our parents came if my teacher………………..(tell; negative) us.
  7. If she………………(know) there was a test, she would have prepared for it well
  8. If we had left the house earlier, they……………….(be; negative) so late getting to the ship.
  9. If I had seen the concert, I………………..(tell) you about it last night.
  10. Had I known that Desti was a liar, I………………(tell) my secret.

  • Gerund
  1. (Walk)____ all the way home made us tired
  2. I was interested in ____ more about history
  3. It is difficult to get used(eat) ____ with chopstick
  4. Nina forgets (tell)____ me a story
  5. Lina is working hard for her examination. He avoids (Go out)____ too much
  6. She is good at ____ (dance)
  7. We insist on ____(cook) the dinner ourselves
  8. She avoided ____ (tell) him about her plans
  9. Do you mind ____ (give) me a hand ?
  10. ___ (do)sport every day is good for your health.
  • Modal

Complete the following sentences using can/may/must

  1. Sometimes you need the negatives.
  2. My father is very smart. He ________ speak five languages.
  3. Look! The girl is falling into the river. We ________ rescue her now.
  4. Tom gets failed in his exams. I think he ________ study harder.
  5. There is nobody in the room now. They ________ go out to buy something.
  6. If you don’t bring your dictionary, you ________ borrow mine now.
  7. You ________ touch the wall. My father has just painted it.
  8. You ________ care about her since she loves you very much.
  9. John is absent from school today. He ________ be sick.
  10. The bus 1 has just left. We ____wait another later.
  11. Sorry, I am very busy now. I ________ help you.

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